Ndukwu M.C. “Effect of Drying Temperature and Drying Air Velocity on the Drying Rate and ... Drying constant, drying rate, drying air temperature, drying air velocity 1. INTRODUCTION ... The drying constant was calculated from the slope of the negati
is moisture content at time t and K is drying constant. Ndukwu M.C. “Effect of Drying Temperature and Drying Air Velocity on the Drying Rate and Drying Constant of Cocoa Bean” Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript 1091
Desiccant Efficiency in Solvent Drying. 3. Dipolar Aprotic SolventslJ David R. Burfield* and Roger H. Smithers Department of Chemistry, ... spectrum of desiccants.8 Thus, alumina, calcium chloride, phosphorus pentoxide, and 4A molecular sieves,16 as
Air Source Heat Pump System for Drying Application ... (COP) of this heat pump dryer ... coefficient of performance of heat pump is the exact
630 J. Org. Chem., Vol. 46, No. 3, 1981 Notes Table I. Desiccant Efficiency in the Dryinga,b of a PyridineC Series residual water content,d ppm desiccant CaH, CaC, BaO 4A sieves 3A sieves
Seminar 14 – Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning ... ASHRAE is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. ... Psychrometric Chart at 0 ft Elevation (14
Desiccant Efficiency in Solvent and Reagent Drying. 7. Alcohols’” David R. Burfield and Roger H. Smithers* Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 22-11, West Malaysia Received October 22, 1982 For many of their applications in sy
The Husky 1050 has a 1 inch (25.4 mm) connection and is available in aluminum, polypropylene, conductive polypropylene, PVDF, stainless steel and hastelloy
Sullair SMC Air Dryers Your compressed air system will contain water, dirt, wear particles and even degraded lubricating oil which mix together to …
The relationship between pressure drop and flow rate is ... pressure curve. The air flow rate can be determined by ... Air Handling System Characterization Data ...
Instructions - Parts List
Desiccant Air Drying System
Model 234401, Series D Maximum Operating Pressure 160 psi (1.1 MPa, 11 bar) Maximum Temperature 150° F (65° C)
Model 24M178, Series B Maximum Operating Pressure 175 psi (1.2 MPa, 12 bar) Maximum Temperature 150° F (65° C) Important Safety Instructions Read all warnings and instructions in this manual. Save these instructions.
Model 234401 shown
Air Inlet npt(f)
Air Outlet npt(f)
Air Flow Capacity (CFM) at 100 psi (0.7 MPa, 7 bar)
Maximum Operating Pressure, psi (MPa, bar)
Stage 1 - Air Filter with automatic drain. Removes water and contaminants down to 3 microns.
175 (1.2, 12)
Stage 2 - Coalescer with automatic drain. Removes oil and sub-micronic particles down to 1 micron.
How Desiccant Air Drying System Works AIR DRY T OU AIR WET IN
Quick-remove flange Built-in screen prevents desiccant from going down tube when refilled
After the moisture has been removed, the dry air passes through an element, up the center tube, and out the outlet port. As long as the desiccant is replaced at saturation point and your compressed air is not exposed to a temperature below the dew point, your equipment will receive dry, moisture-free air. As the desiccant becomes saturated with moisture, the dew point begins to rise. This is evident when the desiccant changes color from blue to pink, indicating the need for desiccant replacement. Refer to Desiccant Changeout, page 9.
288810 Blue silica gel desiccant beads turn pink when saturated.
Element prevents any desiccant dust from traveling downstream Built-in sight glass allows easy monitoring of desiccant color change
When air is compressed, the temperature of the air increases, as does its capacity to hold moisture. As the hot, moist air travels down through the lines, it cools, allowing the moisture to condense. Filters, drain traps, and driplegs only remove liquid condensation. The Dryaire Desiccant Air Drying System removes liquid condensation, residual water vapor and aerosols. As the wet compressed air flows through the inlet port and down the bed of desiccant, the desiccant beads absorb the water vapor and aerosols and can reduce the air humidity down to a -40°F (-40°C) pressure dew point.
Installation 1. Before installing air line components, blow out the pipe line to remove debris. Be sure air to the regulator is clean. Erratic operation or loss of regulation is usually caused by dirt in the regulator. 2. Install the Air Drying System as close as possible to the equipment it serves. Use template 289185, provided, to position system.
3. Install air shut-off valve 288798 upstream from the air system to isolate it for service. 4. Install system so air flows through filters in the direction noted on top of filter. 5. A minimum 1/2 in. npt piping is recommended. Avoid using too many fittings, couplings, etc., which will restrict air flow.
Shop Air Piping Layout Main Air Line 3/4 in. (19 mm) minimum 1-1/4 in. (32 mm) optimum
1/2 in. (13 mm) drops
Slope s Recom down and a w (15.24 mended 4 in ay m) ga . lvaniz (117 mm) ed pip d e reco rop in 50 ft mmen ded)
Air Control unit or Air Filter Membrane air drying system
Main Air Shut-off Valve
Desiccant air drying system 8
Flexible hose between compressor and stand pipe
ft. ( 4 .6 - 6
Drain Valve .1 m
Main Air Line stand pipe should not be smaller than compressor outlet size. A minimum of 25 ft. (7.62 m) from compressor to first filter outlet is required to cool air [50 ft. (15.24 m) optimum]
Minimum Pipe Size Recommendations Compressor
Main Air Line
1-1/2 - 2 HP
6 - 9 CFM
3/4 in. (19 mm)
3 - 5 HP
12 - 20 CFM
Up to 200 ft (61 m)
3/4 in. (19 mm)
Over 200 ft (61 m)
1 in. (25.4 mm))
5 - 10 HP
20 - 40 CFM
Up to 100 ft (30.5)
3/4 in. (19 mm)
1 in. (25.4 mm)
Over 200 ft (61 m)
1-1/4 in. (31.8 mm)
10 - 15 HP
40 - 60 CFM
Up to 100 ft (30.5)
3/4 in. (19 mm)
1-1/4 in. (31.8)
Over 200 ft (61 m)
1-1/2 in. (38.1)
Air Pressure Drop Through Hose, by hose length and ID psi (Kpa, bar) Air Hose Inside Diameter
Operation WARNING Do not exceed the Maximum Incoming Air Pressure of the equipment. Over pressurizing can cause component rupture and serious injury.
Model 234401, Series D
1. Attach air hose(s) to air regulator outlet valve 289165.
The automatic drain is equipped with a float actuated device which automatically ejects liquid contaminates under pressure.
2. Attach air hose to main shut-off valve 288798. 3. Open main shut-off valve 288798. 4. Turn the T-hand adjusting screw in or out to adjust regulator to desired setting. 5. Open outlet valve 289165 to supply air to spray guns or tool. 6. With air flowing, readjust air pressure regulator if necessary. 7. Turn off unit when not in use. Follow Pressure Relief Procedure, page 8.
Coalescer Pressure Drop Indicator The differential pressure drop indicator provides early detection of a clogged coalescing filter element. As the filter element becomes clogged, the red indicator starts to rise while air is flowing through the unit. When the pressure drop across the element reaches 10-12 psi (69-83 kPa, 0.7-0.8 bar), the red indicator will be in full view, and the element should be replaced. Failure to replace the element when the pressure drop exceeds 10 psi (69 kPa, 0.7 bar) will affect your air quality and tool efficiency.
Model 24M178, Series B 1. Attach air hose(s) to outlet elbow fitting 120375. 2. Attach air hose to inlet elbow fitting C19024. 3. Open main shut-off valve 288798. 4. Turn off unit when not in use. Follow Pressure Relief Procedure, page 8.
Model 234401 C19024 288798
288789 288789 120375
234397 289165 234404
288787 234404 ti22156a ti22157a
Part No. 234402 234397 234404 288787 288789 288798 289165
Description Air Filter with auto drain; see Manual 309919 for parts information Coalescer with auto drain; see Manual 309919 for parts information Desiccant Housing Air Regulator, self relieving Nipple with screen Shut-off Valve Regulator Outlet Valve
Part No. 234402 234397 234404 288789 288798 C19024 120375
Description Air Filter with auto drain; see Manual 309919 for parts information Coalescer with auto drain; see Manual 309919 for parts information Desiccant Housing Nipple with screen Shut-off Valve Elbow Fitting Elbow Fitting
Maintenance and Repair
Pressure Relief Procedure WARNING
To avoid injury, relieve air and fluid pressure before checking, cleaning, or repairing the equipment. The following is a basic pressure relief procedure. Be sure to follow the specific pressure relief procedure in your spray gun and/or fluid supply equipment manuals. 1. Close the main air shut-off valve. 2. Trigger the gun or dispense valve and open any drain valves to relieve pressure.
Coalescer 234397, Series B NOTE: It is recommended that Air Filter 234402 be installed upstream of the coalescing filter to remove 3 micron and larger size particles and separate large droplets of moisture from the air line.
CAUTION Never let the liquid level in the bowl reach the base of the coalescing element. See Manual 309919 for operation, cleaning, and parts information.
Maintenance and Repair •
Relieve the pressure before cleaning, checking or repairing. Follow Pressure Relief Procedure, above.
Check system at least once per shift to ensure proper drainage.
A supply of low flow/low humidity air will provide longer desiccant life.
Air Filter 234402, Series B To maintain maximum filtering efficiency and avoid excessive pressure drop, the filter must be kept clean. See Manual 309919 for cleaning and parts information.
Maintenance and Repair
Desiccant Housing 234404, Series B
5. Refill bowl with new or regenerated desiccant. See Desiccant Changeout. Desiccant Housing 234404 holds 5 lb. of desiccant.
NOTE: Always install a moisture filter, to remove bulk fluids, and a coalescing filter, to remove oil, upstream of the desiccant housing. Desiccant coated with oil will not absorb moisture.
6. Reassemble bowl to cover, making sure that o-ring 289186 is in place in cover.
Desiccant Changeout NOTE: Desiccant beads are non-toxic and non-flammable.
288794 The desiccant gradually changes color from blue to pink, indicating it has absorbed moisture to the saturation point and needs to be regenerated or replaced. •
To regenerate Silica Gel desiccant, heat desiccant for 4 hours at 275°F (135°C).
To replace desiccant, order desired part no. from the following chart.
Desiccant Part No.
Color Color when when fresh saturated
288810 Silica Gel (5 lb)
288823 Silica Gel (four 5 lb cans)
Desiccant Housing Disassembly
289187 (2) 289188
1. Follow the Pressure Relief Procedure, page 8. 2. Unscrew the metal collar holding the desiccant bowl to cover. Remove bowl and collar. 3. Dump old desiccant out of bowl. 4. If the pressure drop across the dryer has become unacceptable, the bronze element in the bottom of the bowl may be clogged. To remove clog: a. Place a blow gun at the top of the tube and blow air through the flow tube. b.
If element replacement is needed: disassemble flow tube from the bowl by removing the end cap and nut from the bottom of the bowl.
Turn the flow tube (hand tight) counter clockwise to remove it, then replace elements.
Part No. Description 288793 Flow Tube Assy., includes flow tube, nut, o-ring, filter elements and retainers 289186 O-Ring 288794 Gasket 289189 O-Ring 289187 Filter Element 289188 O-Ring 288795 Sight Glass 288810 Desiccant, silica gel (5 lb) 288823 Desiccant, silica gel (four 5 lb cans)
d. Reassemble in reverse order. 309921N
Maintenance and Repair
Self-Relieving Air Regulator 288787 Be sure air to the regulator is clean. Erratic operation or loss of regulation is usually caused by dirt in the regulator.
Cleaning 1. Follow the Pressure Relief Procedure, page 8. 2. Remove bottom plug, spring, and valve. 3. Remove six screws, and separate regulator body. 4. Clean all parts with denatured alcohol. Wipe off seat and blow out body.
Screws (6) 288796
5. Inspect parts for damage and replace as needed. To replace the valve and diaphragm, order Repair Kit 288796. 6. Reassemble parts and screw them into the regulator before tightening the bottom plug. Make sure the valve, diaphragm and spring are center aligned. Air Regulator Assembly for Desiccant Air Drying System
Diaphragm Valve 289191 (spring) Bottom Plug
Part No. 289340 289149 288796 289190 289191 288797 289165
Description Air Pressure Gauge Plug Diaphragm/Valve Repair Kit T-handle Adjusting Screw Spring Nipple, 3/8 in. x 3/8 in. Shut-off Valve
Maintenance and Repair
Graco Standard Warranty Graco warrants all equipment referenced in this document which is manufactured by Graco and bearing its name to be free from defects in material and workmanship on the date of sale to the original purchaser for use. With the exception of any special, extended, or limited warranty published by Graco, Graco will, for a period of twelve months from the date of sale, repair or replace any part of the equipment determined by Graco to be defective. This warranty applies only when the equipment is installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Graco’s written recommendations. This warranty does not cover, and Graco shall not be liable for general wear and tear, or any malfunction, damage or wear caused by faulty installation, misapplication, abrasion, corrosion, inadequate or improper maintenance, negligence, accident, tampering, or substitution of non-Graco component parts. Nor shall Graco be liable for malfunction, damage or wear caused by the incompatibility of Graco equipment with structures, accessories, equipment or materials not supplied by Graco, or the improper design, manufacture, installation, operation or maintenance of structures, accessories, equipment or materials not supplied by Graco. This warranty is conditioned upon the prepaid return of the equipment claimed to be defective to an authorized Graco distributor for verification of the claimed defect. If the claimed defect is verified, Graco will repair or replace free of charge any defective parts. The equipment will be returned to the original purchaser transportation prepaid. If inspection of the equipment does not disclose any defect in material or workmanship, repairs will be made at a reasonable charge, which charges may include the costs of parts, labor, and transportation. THIS WARRANTY IS EXCLUSIVE, AND IS IN LIEU OF ANY OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Graco’s sole obligation and buyer’s sole remedy for any breach of warranty shall be as set forth above. The buyer agrees that no other remedy (including, but not limited to, incidental or consequential damages for lost profits, lost sales, injury to person or property, or any other incidental or consequential loss) shall be available. Any action for breach of warranty must be brought within two (2) years of the date of sale. GRACO MAKES NO WARRANTY, AND DISCLAIMS ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, IN CONNECTION WITH ACCESSORIES, EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS OR COMPONENTS SOLD BUT NOT MANUFACTURED BY GRACO. These items sold, but not manufactured by Graco (such as electric motors, switches, hose, etc.), are subject to the warranty, if any, of their manufacturer. Graco will provide purchaser with reasonable assistance in making any claim for breach of these warranties. In no event will Graco be liable for indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages resulting from Graco supplying equipment hereunder, or the furnishing, performance, or use of any products or other goods sold hereto, whether due to a breach of contract, breach of warranty, the negligence of Graco, or otherwise. FOR GRACO CANADA CUSTOMERS The Parties acknowledge that they have required that the present document, as well as all documents, notices and legal proceedings entered into, given or instituted pursuant hereto or relating directly or indirectly hereto, be drawn up in English. Les parties reconnaissent avoir convenu que la rédaction du présente document sera en Anglais, ainsi que tous documents, avis et procédures judiciaires exécutés, donnés ou intentés, à la suite de ou en rapport, directement ou indirectement, avec les procédures concernées.
Graco Phone Numbers For the latest information about Graco products, visit www.graco.com. For patent information, see www.graco.com/patents. TO PLACE AN ORDER, contact your Graco distributor or call to identify the nearest distributor. Phone: 612-623-6921 or Toll Free: 1-800-328-0211, Fax: 612-378-3505
All written and visual data contained in this document reflects the latest product information available at the time of publication. Graco reserves the right to make changes at any time without notice. Original instructions. This manual contains English. MM 309921
Graco Headquarters: Minneapolis International Offices: Belgium, China, Japan, Korea GRACO INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES • P.O. BOX 1441 • MINNEAPOLIS MN 55440-1441 • USA Copyright 2003, Graco Inc. All Graco manufacturing locations are registered to ISO 9001. www.graco.com Revision N, October 2013