Drying agents (also called desiccants) come in various forms and have found widespread use in the foods, pharmaceuticals, packing, electronics and many manufacturing industries.
Drying of Solvents and Laboratory Chemicals ... or by adding sodium chloride to salt out the organic phase ... saturated hydrocarbons, ...
Ndukwu M.C. “Effect of Drying Temperature and Drying Air Velocity on the Drying Rate and ... Drying constant, drying rate, drying air temperature, drying air velocity 1. INTRODUCTION ... The drying constant was calculated from the slope of the negati
is moisture content at time t and K is drying constant. Ndukwu M.C. “Effect of Drying Temperature and Drying Air Velocity on the Drying Rate and Drying Constant of Cocoa Bean” Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript 1091
Food drying is one of the oldest methods of preserving food for later use. It can either be an alternative to canning or freezing, or compliment these methods.
The air coming from an air compressor, whether lubricated or oil free type, is not suitable for breath-ing. Treatment of the air is required before the air can be considered suitable for breathing and certain health and safety standards must be met.
Wood drying (also seasoning lumber or wood seasoning) reduces the moisture content of wood before its use. When the drying is done in a kiln, the product is known as kiln-dried timber or lumber, whereas air drying is the more traditional method.
2016 PDA Europe Pharmaceutical Freeze Drying Technology The Parenteral Drug Association presents: pda.org/EU/FreezeDrying2016 Gold Sponsor Va lidation Solution s
Technology Microbiology, Chemistry, Applications EDITEDBY Y. H. Hui, Ph.D. Science TechnologySystems ... Drying RateCurves 25
Solvents Drying and Drying Agents Properties of solvents and methods used for drying them with specific drying agents
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Removing water from Solvents There are various ways of removing water and other impurities from a solution. This can become a major task once the used reagents are also sensitive towards water e.g. Grignard reagents or enolates. If water is one of the products, it also has a detrimental effect on the yield and/or reaction rate. In those cases, drying agents like activated alumina¹, calcium hydride (CaH2 ), sodium metal (in combination with benzophenone which forms a dark blue ketyl radical), lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4 ) or phosphorous pentoxide (P 4 O10 ) are used to chemically destroy the water. The drying agents commonly used in the organic laboratories are the anhydrous forms of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ), sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 ) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4 (as Drierite) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ). Organic liquids are considered to be wet if they contain water,but the organic liquid will still be a liquid after it is dried.
Activated Alumina Activated alumina ¹ is a very porous form of aluminum oxide of high surface area which adsorbs liquids and gases without any change in form. Activated alumina will not soften or disintegrate when immersed in liquids. Activated alumina may be regenerated to its original adsorption efficiency by heating to a temperature between (177-316°C). Activated alumina can be used for: Reconditioning of mineral oils like transformer or insulating oils. Removal of oil vapor mist from compressed air. Drying of organic liquids to a moisture level of 10 ppm or below. Drying of various liquids such as Benzene, Carbon, Tetrachloride, Chlorobenzene, Ethyl Acetate, Transformer oil, Vegetable oils etc.
Solvents drying guide
USE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING DRYING AGENTS
Anhydrous forms of potassium carbonate; anhydrous magnesium or calcium sulphate; quicklime.
Alkyl halides Aryl halides
Anhydrous calcium chloride; anhydrous forms of sodium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, or calcium sulphate; sodium pentoxide.
Saturated and Aromatic hydrocarbons
Anhydrous calcium chloride or sulphate; metallic sodium; phosphorus pentoxide.
Anhydrous sodium sulphate; anhydrous magnesium or calcium sulphate.