aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, the highest efflux of CO2 was measured in the OX-cores, and the highest efflux of DOC occurred in the AN-cores before and after addition of fresh substrate. Similarly, loss of PON (particulate organic nitrog
The importance of aprotic solvents in studies of the electrochemistry of ... aprotic solvents, such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), ... resistive organic solvents.
exchange, solvent extraction and electrowinning at a small scale of 2400 tons of copper cathodes per year. The combined Iontech’s Leach-Ion Exchange–Solvent Extraction- Electrowinning (ION/L-IX-SX-EW) process was selected as the best available techno
Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia Antonín V. Seifert 1– Vladimír Žáček – Stanislav Vrána – Vratislav Pecina 1 – Jiří Zachariáš 2 – J. C. (Hanco) Zwaan 3
MINERALIZATION IN THE GOLD HILL MINING DISTRICT, TOOELE COUNTY, UTAH by H. M. EI-Shatoury and J. A. Whelan UTAH GEOLOGICAL AND MINERALOGIC~4L SURVEY affiliated with
Key Words: manure, mineralization, land-application, nutrient budgeting INTRODUCTION Manure nitrogen (N) comes in both organic and inorganic forms.
Manure Nitrogen Mineralization UC Cooperative Extension Manure Technical Bulletin Series 2 Table 1. Guidelines for animal manure N mineralization in California
Cirotan, Ciawitali, Cikidang and active gold mine in Pongkor. They are all situated in the Bayah dome, a Teriary-Quaternary volcanic structure, and classified as low-sulfidation type epithermal gold deposits. The Cibaliung gold deposit is approximate
tened cuspate glass shards define an eutaxitic texture, and when combined with the columnar joints, indicate hot emplacement, which suggests that the felsic volcanic rock is a welded ignimbrite flow (e.g., Freundt et al., 2000). DYKE A relatively lat
S. A. ABU ELATTA . ET AL. 91. aphanity, provide direct evidence for extreme enrich- ments of HFSE and volatiles (CO. 2, F and H. 2. O). The comparison between slightly altered granite and high-
160 Archived at http://orgprints.org/13665/
The mineralization of commercial organic fertilizers at 8°C temperature Kelderer M.1, Thalheimer M1., Andreaus O1., Topp A. 1, Burger R. 1, Schiatti P. 2
Abstract In organic production only organic fertilizers and soil conditioners can be used to supply the soil with nitrogen. The mineralization of these products is slow and so there can be problems with the supply of nitrogen, when the demand of the plants is high. The supply of nitrogen from organic products depends on the speed of their mineralization which is primarily influenced by the composition and formulation of their raw material. In apple production in the Alps-region especially during spring problems with nitrogen supply are common. In that period, the weather conditions are sometimes bad, the temperature in the soil is low and mineralization starts slowly - apple trees demand more nitrogen than the soil can deliver. To compensate the demand of the apple tree organic growers can not use mineral fertilizers but only organic fertilizers and soil conditioners whose mineralization rate is often unknown. There is a strong need in organic fruit production to receive more information about the behaviour of fertilizers in the soil especially concerning their N-release under different conditions. To acquire that information, incubation experiments under controlled conditions (temperature, type of soil, humidity of the soil) were carried out in the laboratory to determine the mineralization-rate of different organic fertilizers and soil conditioners which are available in our region. Keywords: nitrogen mineralization, organic fertilizers, incubation, nutrient content, salinity Introduction In apple orchards the nitrogen supply in spring is frequently a limiting factor, as low soil temperatures limit the activity of the plant roots. The trees mobilize their own nitrogen reserves stored in the stem and roots. During and shortly after bloom, when nitrogen demand is highest, the trees own reserves may become exhausted. The nitrogen supply from the mineralization of soil organic matter is not yet sufficient due to the low soil temperatures. It is therefore important to supply the plants timely in spring with fertilizer nitrogen (AICHNER and DRAHORAD, 2004). This present paper describes an approach to test the mineralization of various commercial organic fertilizers with the aim to improve fertilizer efficiency and thus to reduce environmental impact, such as nitrogen leaching and economic loss. Nitrogen mineralization is a microbial process and as such dependent on environmental conditions. The main factors affecting mineralization are temperature, soil humidity and chemical/physical soil conditions (SCHACHTSCHABEL et al., 2002). The incubation trials were carried out under standardized laboratory conditions at a constant temperature of 8°C.
Materials and methods For the incubation trials plastic containers with a volume of 550 cm³ were filled with 250 g of air dried soil sieved through a 2 mm mesh. To each container an amount of fertilizer containing 57,7 mg N was added. This corresponds to the allowed maximum nitrogen application rate of 90 kg/hectare in South Tyrolean apple production, according to the guidelines of Bioland Südtirol (BIOLAND, 2006). Each fertilizer treatment was replicated 4 times and to each incubation series samples of only soil were added as untreated control. The containers were closed with perforated lids and incubated for 60 days in incubation chambers at 8°C. In order to ensure a sufficient oxygen supply, the chambers were opened at regular intervals for aeration. Water loss from the samples was compensated by adding distilled water. The pattern of mineralization was monitored by taking analyzing subsamples from the containers at 5 intervals after the start of incubation. Soluble and exchangeable soil nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) was extracted with a 0,0125 molar CaCl2 solution. The sum of both fractions gives the content of mineral nitrogen. The net mineral nitrogen content was determined by subtracting the N min content of the untreated control from the N min content of each treatment. The rate of mineralization indicates the amount of added nitrogen mineralized in a given period of time. Before and after incubation a detailed soil analysis was carried out to assess any changes which may have occurred during incubation. Besides various commercial organic fertilizers also different types of liquid manure, soil conditioners and products on the basis of micro organisms were tested. Chemical fertilizers were used as reference. Table 1 lists prices, composition and producers of the tested fertilizers.
162 Archived at http://orgprints.org/13665/ Tab. 1: Product overview of tested fertilizers Product name
Enzymatic hydrolyzed blood
Delta concimi s.a.s.
Seed cake from soya and maize
SVG Italia s.r.l.
Wilhelm Haugh GmbH
Europa Trading s.r.l.
Nuova Geovis s.r.l.
Compost from oil cake from grape and olives Compost from cow dung rich in straw Compost from organic waste and plant materials Cow dung rich in straw
Fermented liquid manure
Biogas slurry Prad
Slurry normal Aldein
Biogas slurry Aldein
Fermented liquid manure
AMI Agrolinz Melamine Intern.GmbH
Scotts Italia s.r.l.
NPK-fertilizer with Osmocote cladding
Compo Agricoltura s.p.a.
NPK-fertilizer with Crotodur
Seed cake, horn meal and manure
Fur, bristle hairs, leather and manure
Leather and fur
Fur and bristle hairs
Slurry normal Prad
Ammonium nitrate (Linzer AMI Agrolinz Melamine Intern.GmbH NAC)
Ecoferro 250 Plus
Formet s.p.a. Ilsa s.p.a.
Synthetic Ammonium nitrate
Manure and iron sulphate
manure, leather, fur and row phosphate
Fur and bristle hairs
Seed cake from soya and maize, horn meal, poultry feathers
Nuova Geovis s.r.l.
Poultry feathers and Blood
Bioilsa 10 export
Nuova Concimer s.r.l.
Nuova Concimer s.r.l.
Stillage, guano and poultry manure
Meat meal, feather meal, manure and poultry manure Meat meal, feather meal, bone meal, manure Meat meal, bone meal, calcium sulphate, potassium sulphate
Hairs, feathers, seed cake
Agripollina pellet Italpollina
Rests coming from feeding industries
Agrobios Italiana s.r.l.
Intrachem Bio Italia s.p.a.
Meat meal and fur
Intrachem Bio Italia s.p.a.
Meat meal and fur
Peat and chemical fertilizer
Agro Bios AG
Kwizda Italia s.r.l.
Hackled mycorrhized roots, enzymes
Milled barley und Molasses
163 Archived at http://orgprints.org/13665/
Results 1. Nitrogen mineralization after 14 and 60 days of incubation at 8°C As listed in table 2, the synthetic fertilizers ammonium nitrate, Vignafrut and urea led to the highest levels of mineral nitrogen release both after 14 days and after 60 days at the end of the incubation period (rates ranging from 57 to 75 %) , followed by the vinasse Nutristart (56-57 %). The vinasses, among which also the products Organ Plus and Agrofertile were tested, showed generally the highest mineralization rates among the organic fertilizers, together with the slurries from biogas plants. Among the group of fertilizers containing animal or vegetal by-products, Guanito showed the highest mineralization rate with 33 % after 14 days and 44,3 % after 60 days. The addition of microbial products to the organic fertilizer Eurofert led to only slightly higher and sometimes lower levels of mineralization than Eurofert on its own. Compost, compost with BactoFil and fresh manure led to the lowest rates of mineralization (0,1 to 0,4 % after 14 days; -0,4 to 0,6 % after 60 days). 2. Variation of soil nutrients and salinity after 60 days of incubation at 8 °C Table 3 list the increments of plant-available soil nutrients and of soil salinity. Zero-values stand for unvaried or reduced contents. Soil pH remained unchanged after 60 days of incubation, as compared to the original soil (pH 7,4). The content of phosphates increased slightly (1 to 6 mg/100 g) in over 50% of cases. The highest increments were recorded for Guanito (+15 mg/100 g) and Naturalmente (+12 mg/100 g). As for the potassium content, the highest increase was recorded for Ecoland 280 (+22 mg/100g). Also Eurofert and Eurofert with added microbial products showed significant increments. For boron, copper and zinc only few and minor increments were recorded. The same applies for manganese, with the exception of the vinasses SVG Agrofertile and Nutristart, which reached an increment of 17 and 12 mg/100 g, respectively, after 60 days of incubation at 8°C. As for magnesium, the highest increments were observed in the cases with added microbial products. Soil salinity increased in all samples during incubation. The highest values were recorded for Ecoferro 250 Plus (+188 mg/kg) and Vignafrut (+126 mg/kg).
164 Archived at http://orgprints.org/13665/ Tab. 2: Fertilizer ranking according to N-mineralization after 14 and 60 days Product Ammonium nitrate Vignafrut MB Urea Nutristart Biogasgülle Aldein Biogasgülle Prad Emosan Organ Plus Lysodin Algafert Guanito SVG Agrofertile Naturalmente Lysofert Sangue atomizzato Triabon Ecolverdepiù Osmocote Ecolenergy Italpollina normale Gülle Aldein Ecoland 280 Ecoferro 250 Plus Normale Gülle Prad Natural NP Rizinuschrot Natural N8 Azocor 6 Fertilvegetal 6 Prosol Organagro Agripollina pellet Azocor 105 Bioilsa 10 Export Agrobiosol Fertorganico Eurofert+BactoFil Eurofert+Euroactiv agro Orgazot Eurofert Eurofert+Ekoprop arboree Fertil Eurofert+EM-A Eurofert+Macrolive Xena N12 Geovis Rigen Plus Compost Compost+BactoFil Fresh manure
Summary To acquire the information about the mineralisation of organic fertilizer and soil conditioners, incubation experiments under controlled conditions (temperature, type of soil, humidity of the soil) were carried out in the laboratory. The results of this paper give an indication about the rate of mineralization and thus the nitrogen-availability of some selected fertilizers at the relatively low temperature of 8° C. This constitutes useful information for the appropriate timing and dosage of fertilizer application in order to avoid both deficiency and excess of soil nitrogen. Other factors such as soil humidity and chemical-physical soil characteristics must however also be taken into consideration (TRÄNKLE, 2000). Organic fertilizers have generally lower rates of nitrogen release than mineral fertilizers which moreover extend over a longer period of time. Some organic fertilizers however release nitrogen at a rate similar to that of synthetic fertilizers. Examples can be mentioned the vinasses Nutristart and Organ plus, Emosan, a blood-based fertilizer, the pelleted fertilizer Guanito or Lysodin Algafert, containing amino acids. Microbial products, which according to the manufacturers should enhance the mineralization of organic matter, led to no significant increase of the rates of mineralization. The increments of nutrient elements other than nitrogen during 60 days of incubation were rather limited. The highest increments were generally recorded in the case of the microbial products. In all incubated samples an increase of salinity was noticed, ranging from 13 mg/kg (Geovis) to 188 mg/kg (Ecoferro 250 Plus). This investigation about the nitrogen mineralization at 8°C gives indications about the optimal timing of application of each product, depending also on climatic conditions and nutrient demand. Acknowledgements This project was supported by the EU commission (Sixth framework Programme Contract Nr. 016279, Project acronym ISAFRUIT) and the organic Grower Association Pro.B.E.R from the region Emilia Romagna (Italy) References
BIOLAND (2006): Bioland-Richtlinien für Erzeuger. Veröffentlicht von Bioland-Südtirol (Verband für organisch-biologischen Landbau), Selbstverlag, Mainz. DRAHORAD W.; AICHNER, M. (2004): Boden und Pflanzenernährung im Obstbau, Weinbau und Bioanbau. Fotolito Varesco, Bozen, 189-201. SCHACHTSCHABEL, P.; SCHEFFER, F. (2002) Lehrbuch der Bodenkunde. 15. Auflage, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag GmbH, Berlin, Heidelberg. TRÄNKLE, L. (2000): Untersuchungen zum Umsetzungsverhalten ausgewählter organischer Düngemittel. In 9. Internationaler Erfahrungsaustausch über Forschungsergebnisse zum Ökologischen Obstbau (Hrsg.: Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e. V.).